Mitosis is responsible for cell growth and reproduction. The most astonishing factor about mitosis is its precision, this concept inspired many biologists. One such biologist was Walther Flemming who gave more theories on the sequence of mitosis, however it was not proved and accepted until light microscopy advanced. Advancement in light microscopy revealed the movement of chromosome in the living cells.
Stages of mitosis
The main stages of mitosis are
- Early Prophase
- Late Prophase
- Telophase and Cytokinesis
Interphase – During this phase the cell copies its DNA in preparation of mitosis. In this part of the cell cycle, the cell grows and the chromosomes replicate and they appear as threads in the nucleus.
Early Prophase and Late Prophase– Early during prophase, the chromosomes becomes visible with the light microscope. The thread like structures or chromatins condenses to form chromosomes. The late prophase begins with the disruption of nuclear envelope.
Metaphase – This is the third phase of mitosis, here the disrupted chromosomes align themselves in the center of the cell and they are condensed. Since they are condensed they move across the cell easily without being tangled.
Anaphase– This is the fourth stage of mitosis. During this phase the pair of chromosomes also called as sister chromosomes move towards the opposite poles. The sister chromosome are now the daughter chromosomes. When the sister chromatid duplicate and separate, they eventually called as daughter chromosomes.
Telophase and Cytokinesis – This is the final stage in mitosis where the nuclear membrane is formed around each set of chromosomes. This nuclear membrane separate the DNA from the cytoplasm. The division of cell will not be complete until cytokinesis takes place.
At the end of all the stages of mitosis, cell components completely divide into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis complete the mitosis cycle, it begins with prophase in plant cell and anaphase in animal cell.